Connecticut is the 29th most populous state, with 3.5 million residents, and is ranked 48th in size by area, making it the 4th most densely populated state. Called the Constitution State, Nutmeg State, and "The Land of Steady Habits", Connecticut was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States. Named for the Connecticut River, the major U.S. river that approximately bisects the state, Connecticut's capital city is Hartford. Much of southern and western Connecticut (along with majority of the state's population) is part of the New York metropolitan area; three of Connecticut's eight counties are statistically included in the New York City combined statistical area, the same area is widely referred to as the Tri-State area. Connecticut's center of population is in Cheshire, New Haven County, which is also located within the Tri-State area.
As of 2005, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,510,297. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.
Winters are generally considered to be cold, with average temperatures ranging from 31 degrees in the maritime influenced southeast to 23 degrees in the northwest in January. The average yearly snowfall is about 25–100" (64–254 cm) across the state, with higher totals in the northwest. Spring has variable temperatures with frequent rainfall. Summer is hot and humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 degrees and 87 degrees in Windsor Locks. Fall months are mild and bring colorful foliage across the state in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be quite severe. The highest recorded temperature within Connecticut was 106 degrees in Danbury in the middle of July 1995. The coldest temperature recorded within the state was -32 degrees back in 1961 during January.Connecticut's gross state product for 2006 reached over $200 billion. In 2007 the per capita income reached the highest within the country at $54,117. Annual median income within Connecticut is the third highest in the nation at $68,595. Homes within the state have a median cost of $226,000. Religion within the state includes 40% Protestant and 32% Roman Catholic, with 12% of the population considering themselves Non-Religious.